20 minutes read

Dictionary L

TermExplanation
L&DLoss and damage.
LabelA piece of paper or cloth attached to a box or the product itself describing the product or some of its attributes.
Label Holder/Label PlacardThe label holder acts as a label holding device that allows the user to label and relabelled containers, racks, and pallets.
Label Identification SystemThe system employed in identifying products and containers by use of various types of labels/placards/holders.
Label TableLabel Table is the one used for defining possible sales size options on the product. Minimum 1 and maximum 8 sales sizes for different country or region can be defined on Label table.
Labelling SolutionsProducts such as placards and nameplates that are pressure sensitive labels that permanently or temporarily identify containers, racks, or pallets.
labour costThe portion of a manufactured item’s standard or actual cost attributed to the usage of direct labour, as specified by the hours consumed times the pay rate per hour
labour efficiency varianceThe cost variance created by using more or less actual labour hours than the standard labour hours for a given amount of production, while assuming the actual pay rate equalled the standard pay rate.
labour gradeA labour classification that indicates capabilities and sometimes an associated pay range and ranking against other labour grades
labour intensiveA product or product line that requires a higher usage of direct labour as compared to other products that make more use of automation
labour planningA means of determining staffing policies dealing with employment stability and work schedules
labour utilisationThe measure of the labour hours recorded against production activities vs. the hours available or scheduled for a given period
labour work centreA work centre where the specified capacity is constrained by labour availability instead of machine availability.
Laden on BoardA bill of lading that indicates a shipment has been loaded on board a vessel.
LadingThe cargo carried in a transportation vehicle
Lag timeThe period of time after processing is complete that a given item is not available for usage due to curing, drying or other requirement that does not involved active use of resources.
Lagging indicatorAn economic or other indicator that changes value after the underlying conditions it measures have begun to exhibit a trend.
Laid-Down costThe sum of the product and transportation costs. The laid-down cost is useful in comparing the total cost of a product shipped from different supply sources to a customer’s point of use
LANLocal Area Network
Land-bridgeCross country rail service connecting two ocean ports.
Landed costThe total cost of a product delivered at a given location, the production cost plus the transportation cost to the customer’s location.
Landing CertificateCertificate issued by consular officials of some importing countries at the point or place of export when the subject goods are exported under bond.
Landing GearA support fixed on the front part of a chassis (which is retractable); used to support the front end of a chassis when the tractor has been removed.
Laser scannerDevice that uses a moving laser to read bar codes. Devices can be portable hand-held units, or fixed units
Laser-guidedGuidance system used with AGVs that uses a rotating laser (mounted on top of the vehicle) to determine the vehicles location. Reflective targets need to be strategically placed along the vehicle’s route. Must always maintain clear line-of-site to reflective targets for the system to work properly.
Lash BargesCovered barges that carriers load on board ocean-going ships for movement to foreign destinations
Lash VesselAcronym for Lighter Along Ship. Vessel able to carry multiple barges.
LashedBarge system; barges loaded on a vessel instead of a container.
Lashing pointPoint on the deck of a ship, or on a vehicle or inside a shipping container to which wires, chains, ropes or straps are attached which are used to hold goods in position.
LashingsDevices, often wires, chains, ropes or straps, used to secure a cargo on a ship, truck or railway car, or inside a shipping container.
Last Bottom GaugeA 2D gauge that shows the exact size of the feather edge (or the bottom shape) of the last. The LBG is provided by the last manufacturer.
Last Centre LineAxis based on the last bottom gauge.
Late AddLate Adds are any model or article which needs to be added to the range outside the applicable calendar, for which there is no approved development/sourcing process defined. Or Late adds are any model or article which exceed the size of agreed range plans at the beginning of a season.
Late finish dateThe latest date a project task or activity can be completed without delaying the entire project
Late start dateThe latest date a project task or activity can begin without delaying the entire project
LatenessThe degree to which an order or project task is past its due or scheduled date. Some systems prioritise action messages based on the items most late, or past due.
Latent DefectA flaw, defect or condition not observable at the initial inspection but obviously occurring over a period of time.
Latest ForecastArticle forecast submitted monthly or weekly to International Logistics. The forecast will be stored in ILS.
LAYCANLaydays/Cancelling (date): Range of dates within the hire contract must start.
LayersDifferent pieces of material put together to act as one material.
LCL / FCLCargo packed into container by the shipping company and unpacked by the consignee on their respective responsibility.
Lead Logistics Provider (LLP)An organisation that manages a full scope of logistics services for a company by aggregating and coordinating the services of multiple logistics service providers.
Lead TimeThe total time that elapses between an order’s placement and its receipt. It includes the time required for order transmittal, order processing, order preparation, and transit
Lead-time demandForecasted demand during the lead-time period. For example, if your forecasted demand is 3 units per day and your lead time is 12 days, your lead-time demand would be 36 units
LeanManufacturing efficiency programme to improve overall factory performance in terms of delivery, quality and cost.
Lean EnterpriseAn enterprise with a total focus on waste elimination and the customer’s needs, in all parts of the operation. Emphasis is given to flexibility of response, lean structure and processes, and efficient methods and techniques to continually seize new opportunities as they arise
Lean Production/manufacturingA team-based method of just-in-time production that removes non-value adding wastes (such as waiting, inspection, transport, motion, overproduction, defects, and inventory) from the production process.
Least Unit CostA dynamic lot-sizing technique that adds ordering cost and inventory carrying cost for each trial lot size and divides by the number of units in the lot size, picking the lot size with the lowest unit cost.
Ledge-type ShelvingA shelving unit designed to accommodate two different depths of shelves. Larger shelves are placed at the bottom, and the unit is stepped back with smaller shelves on top. This step-back forms a ledge across the face of the shelf. The shelving may be either open or closed type. In some instances, a ledge unit can be added to a regular shelving unit
LeftoverInventory not ordered or delivered, where planned volumes of merchandise exceeded demand for the goods.
Left-to-right DimensionAs applied to welded-wire rack decking, the horizontal direction of a decking section parallel to the beams of the rack.
LegAn element attached to the base of a container that provides handling clearance and safe stacking.
Legacy systemimplies a business computer/information system that is old or outdated. Often used to describe home-grown (custom built) mainframe systems, however, software companies will use the term legacy system to define any system that is not based on the current version of a business software package.
LESLogistics Execution Systems manage inventory, space, material handling equipment, labour and transportation resources to assure timely, error-free fulfilment and visibility of order status throughout the supply chain.
Less PackingAir freight requires less packaging because of faster delivery and better security
Let DownHandling a unitised load from its position in the stack or storage rack down to a location where partial withdrawals can be made.
Letter of CreditBank-issued document authorising transfer of funds from buyer to seller (L/C, Elcee)under established terms and conditions in international transactions.
Letter of GuaranteeLetter provided to carrier in lieu of surrender of original bill of lading.
Letter of IndemnityFrees one from any responsibilities. Protection in writing to carrier from performing a deviation to normal business.
Level material useThe use of frequent, high-quality, small lot sizes that contribute to just-in-time production
Level schedulingMixing products so that each day’s production meets the demand for that day.
Level SellingA system of customer relations that attempts to eliminate surges in demand caused by the selling system itself (for example, quarterly or monthly sales targets) and, instead, strives to create long-term relations with customers so that future purchases can be anticipated by the production system.
LGV Large Goods VehiclesMay also refer to Light Goods Vehicle <3500kg gross vehicle weight in some contexts
Library ShelvingA form of cantilevered shelving that is primarily utilised in application where ease of reconfiguration is necessary. This type of shelving is configured to satisfy book and technical manual storage requirements. Space between shelves can be expanded to accommodate taller items.
License PlateLicense plates are often used with warehouse management systems. They are basically an ID number placed on a pallet, tote, carton or other container, and are used to track the contents of that container as it moves through the warehouse. The license plate will almost always have a bar code that contains this ID number. So by scanning a single bar code on the pallet you can initiate or complete movement transactions for all items and quantities on that pallet.
LicensingLicensing is when one organisation authorises another organisation to manufacture and sell its products
Life Cycle CostIn cost account, a product’s life cycle is the period that starts with the initial product conceptualisation and ends with the withdrawal of the product from the marketplace and final disposition
Life Time ValueLiterally value life of a customer. Particularly useful concept in the development of consumer loyalty. The value life of a customer can be represented by the sales turnover which a faithful customer can generate throughout his life for a company or by the margins that it will get for the company (expectation of margin).
LifecycleThe series of different phases in form and functional activity through which something (as an individual, culture, or product) passes during its lifetime.
LIFOLast In First Out warehousing term, meaning that the most recently received (last in) items are the first to be used or sold (first out).
Lift on, Lift off (LO/LO)A method by which cargo is loaded onto and unloaded from an ocean vessel.
Lift truckVehicles used to lift, move, stack, rack, or otherwise manipulate loads.
Lifted ItemA consumable or repairable product for which the manufacturer has specified a finite life in either some form of time period or in a number of cycles or activities
LighterA barge-type vessel used to carry cargo between shore and cargo ship
LighterageThe cost of loading or unloading a vessel by means of barges.
Lights-out warehouseDescribes fully-automated facilities. The idea being that if the facility requires no human operators, you can run it with no lights. Use of AS/RS units, AGVs, automated conveyors, robots, etc makes this possible.
LIMLogistics Inventory Management
Limited Service RetailersMore sales assistance, more shopping goods because customer require more information.
Limited, or finite, populationA queuing system in which there are only a limited number of potential users of the service
LIMSLogistics Inventory Management System
Line FunctionsThe decision-making areas companies associate with daily operations. Logistics line functions include traffic management, inventory control, order processing, warehousing, and packaging
Line haulA movement between major terminals over 100 to 150 miles in distance.
Line Haul ChargeTransportation of your move. These charges apply in addition to the additional service charges.
Line ItemA specific and unique identifier assigned to a product by the responsible enterprise
Line ListList of products available for production for one specific season that is updated permanently. It includes development data from PDM, and RMS, additional pricing and logistics data, and carry over models.
Line ScrapValue of raw materials and work-in-process inventory scrapped as a result of improper processing or assembly line
Line side WarehouseA supplier warehouse positioned as close as possible to the production location to facilitate Just In Time manufacture
Linear Bar CodeA method of automatic identification using a series of light spaces and dark bars of differing densities, in standard formats, to enable a computer to read data and letters accurately without keyboard entry
Linear BaysThe total amount of hanging rail space expressed in bays.
Linear decision ruleAn aggregate planning model that attempts to specify an optimum production rate and work-force level over a specific period
Linear MetresThe measurement of display space, either flat displays, shelving, or hanging rails.
Linear programmingA mathematical technique designed to help production and operations managers in planning and decision making relative to the trade-off necessary to allocate resources.
Linear regression analysisA straight-line mathematical model to describe the functional relationships between independent and dependent variables is common quantitative causal forecasting model
Liner ServiceInternational water carriers that provide service on fixed routes on published schedules.
Liner TrainSpecially designed rail line for regular movement of liner/contain
LinkThe transportation method a company uses to connect nodes (plants, warehouses) in a logistics system
Link Access ProtocolAny protocol of the Data Link Layer, such as EtherTalk.
Linked Distributed SystemsIndependent computer systems owned by independent organisations linked in a manner to allow direct updates to be made to one system by another
LISLogistics Information System
LiveA situation in which the equipment operator stays with the trailer or boxcar while it is being loaded or unloaded
Lloyds’ RegistryAn organisation maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment.
LLPSee Lead Logistics Provider
LNG CarrierLiquefied Natural Gas Carrier.
Load Date SpreadAgreed-upon period within which pickup of a shipment is to take place
Load FactorA measure of operating efficiency used by air carriers to determine a plane’s utilised capacity percentage or the number of passengers divided by the total number of seats
Load LengthLoad length is the maximum overall dimension of a pallet or load module. It is measured in the direction perpendicular to the length of the aisle (parallel to the forks) for conventional fork lift truck handling.[1]
Load locksAdjustable support bars used inside trailers to prevent movement of the load. a.k.a Load bars, Cargo bars
Load OptimisationThe practice of ensuring that transportation assets such as vehicles, air containers, cargo space, etc.. to minimise costs
Load PlanIs the planning system especially for the delivery route planning
Load PlannerIs the person who does the route planning in load planning system
Load RatioThe ratio of loaded miles to empty miles.
Load reportsA report for showing the resource requirements in a work centre for all work currently assigned there as well as all planned and expected orders
Load Tender (Pick-Up Request)The offering of cargo to be loaded by a carrier.
Load-bearing SurfaceActual area of material in contact with and supporting a unit load.
Loading(1) The labor of putting a load of something on or in a vehicle or ship or container. (2) Weight to be borne or conveyed. (3)Goods carried by a large vehicle
Loading AllowanceA reduced rate that carriers offer to shippers and/or consignees who load and/or unload LTL or Any Quantity shipments
Loading AreaThe surface or plane on which a course is laid
Loading Area EfficiencyThe percentage of the prescribed loading area occupied by the containers in the first course
Loading DockThe sorting or staging platform where shipments are loaded or unloaded.
Loading ListA system print out documents stated the details to shipment need to load
Loading PortThe port where the cargo is loaded onto the exporting vessel
Local CargoCargo delivered to/from the carrier where origin/destination of the cargo is in the local area.
Local DeliveryMovement of product from warehouse facility to the final destination.
Local Pick-UpMovement of product from origin to a warehouse facility.
Local RateA rate published between two locations served by one carrier.
Local service AirlinesProvide a connecting service with domestics’ trunk line carriers for passenger and cargo services.
Local Service CarriersA classification of air carriers that operate between less-populated areas and major population centres
Localised Raw MaterialA raw material found only in certain locations
Location CheckingThe systematic physical checking of warehouse stock against location records to ensure location accuracy
Locational break-even analysisA cost-volume analysis to make an economic comparison of location alternatives.
Locational determinantThe factors that determine the location of a facility. For industrial facilities, the determinants include logistics
Locator systemLocator systems are inventory-tracking systems that allow you to assign locations to your inventory to facilitate greater tracking and the ability to store product randomly. Prior to locator systems, warehouses needed to store product
LockThe latch mechanism on folding containers used with a U-shaped part called the staple to secure folding container walls and gates in a closed position.
Lockout / Tagoutthe process of disabling (lockout) and identifying (tagout) equipment and energy sources during maintenance or service to prevent injury of personnel from an unexpected startup or power up.
LockstitchFormed by two different thread systems. A needle thread introduced from one side of the material is interlaced with an underthread supplied from a spool on the other side
Log SheetThe sheet used by the security personnel to log every truck in to the warehouse premises
LogbookA daily record of the hours an interstate driver spends driving, off duty, sleeping in the berth, or on duty but not driving
Logical PartitioningThe partitioning of a computer application’s code into distinct executable programs. Logical partitioning is independent of the platforms on which an application may be deployed.
Logistic StrapsNylon straps used to tie off tiers in a trailer.
Logistic TrackMetal track inside a trailer onto which logistic straps are hooked.
LogisticsThe processes involved in transferring goods through manufacture storage and transportation to business customers and end consumers
LogisticsThe process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient and cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process stocks, finished goods and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption for customers. Logistics encompasses warehousing, transport, added-value/pre-retailing services and IT solutions and covers inbound, outbound, internal, international and reverse product flows.
Logistics ChannelThe network of intermediaries engaged in transfer, storage, handling, and communications functions that contribute to the efficient flow of goods.
Logistics control tower (LCT)Bespoke packages of information services used to manage and control supply chain activities on behalf of customers and suppliers. Also known as logistics or transport control tower.
Logistics ControllingDepartment which provides analytical skills to the logistics departments, in order to improve budgeting, and cost control, the logistics process, decision making and the day-to-day management of the business.
Logistics CostsThe factors associated with the acquisition, storage, movement, and disposition of goods.
Logistics Data Interchange (LDI)An integrating computerised system that electronically transmits logistics information computer to computer.
Logistics France PilotThis project supports an extension of the Supply Chain Planning process, in the area of transport & distribution between Subsidiaries and Global Operations.
Logistics outsourcingThe sub-contracting to external companies of tasks considered to be outside an organisation’s core competence. Logistics outsourcing is one of the most popular forms.
Logistics re-engineeringThe study and re-design of logistics processes to achieve significant improvements in performance.
Logistics service provider (LSP)An organisation that offers 3PL, 4PL or lead logistics provider services.
Logistics Visibility ProviderAn Internet-based service that provides the integration to and captures the data from logistics service providers; cleanses, verifies and analyses the data; and reports on logistics activities to facilitate supply chain visibility
Log-log graphsGraphs that use a logarithmic scale on both the x- and y- axis
Long Combination VehicleIn general, vehicles longer than a standard doubles rig tractor and two 28-foot semi-trailers
Longest processing time (LPT)A priority rule that assigns the highest priority to those jobs with the longest processing time.
Longitudinal flue spaceterm used by fire codes to describe the space between the rows of back-to-back racking. Flue spaces allow the water from an overhead sprinkler system to reach lower levels of the rack. Normally a longitudinal flue space of at least 6 inches is required. It is important to note that the flue space is measured as the distance between the loads, not the distance between the racks
LotA stock keeping unit that must be stored apart from other like stock keeping units.
Lot for lotAn order method that is driven by forecast periods. Order quantities will match demand in each specific forecast period.
Lot NumberThe process of tracking production where groups of inventory, within a given product are produced in a batch. Lot tracking is useful for products such as fabric.
Lot ReconciliationThe use of sensors to count the number of objects that pass a particular point in the material handling system for purposes of reconciling actual production or material movement with planned production.
Lot SizeThe quantity of goods a company purchases or produces in anticipation of use or sale in the future.
Lot SplittingBuying large quantities of a product in bulk and selling it to retailers in smaller lot sizes.
Lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD)The quality level of a lot considered bad
Lot-for-lotA lot-sizing technique producing exactly what was required
Low-BoyA trailer or semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground.
Lower InsuranceAir freight is faster and has better security than the land and ocean freight thus the insurance premium rate generally is lower.
Low-level codingA system in a bill-of-material when an item is coded at the lowest level at which it occurs
LPGLiquid Petroleum Gas
LS or LMLump Sum. A local freight rate which is inclusive of all charges.
LT1 Long Ton = 2,240 lbs.
LTLLTL stands for Less Than Truckload, which means the shipment does not completely fill an entire truck. A LTL shipment typically ranges anywhere from 150 lbs to10,000 lbs. Large Shipments over 10,000 lbs are usually moved by Full truckload (FTL).
LTL CarrierTrucking company which consolidates less-than-truckload cargo for multiple destinations on one vehicle
LTL shipmentA less-than-truckload shipment, one weighing less than the minimum weight a company needs to use the lower truckload rate.
Lump Sum FreightAn agreed amount for the carriage of goods, not based upon quantity
LumpingA term applied to a person who assists a motor carrier owner-operator in the loading and unloading of property; quite commonly used in the food industry.
Lust-to-DustSimilar to “Cradle-to-Grave” but also includes the logistics considerations during the initial planning phase, prior to the acquisition process

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